The SIEAC provided expert energy advice to the Seoul Metropolitan Government (SMG) on its “One Less Nuclear Power Plant” plan, launched in April 2012, through 2013/14 (see Recommendations to Seoul) and its draft “One Less Nuclear Power Plant, Phase 2 — Seoul Sustainable Energy Action Plan in 2014", which was launched at the Seoul International Energy Conference in November 2014. SIEAC-Members presented a summary of the detailed comments and recommendations in 2014 and in 2015 to SMG.
SIEAC members also contributed advice on the design and implementation of the Seoul International Energy Conferences in 2013, 2014 and 2015 and provided all of the non-Korean speakers for the first two events and all but two for the 2015 event.
“One Less Nuclear Power Plant”
In 2011, Seoul consumed 180 TWh (15.5 million tonnes of oil equivalent or MTOE) of primary energy, 7.5% of South Korea’s national total. Of this, Seoul’s electricity consumption accounted for 10.3% of the national total. Seoul is heavily dependent on imported fossil fuels, with oil and liquefied natural gas (LNG) accounting for 39% and 30% of the energy mix, respectively. New and renewable energy accounted for 1.6% of the city’s total energy consumption. Nuclear energy covered 30% of the country’s electricity consumption in 2014, but there is a strong anti-nuclear movement in South Korea, which has grown significantly since the Fukushima nuclear disaster in 2011. However, the national government plans to increase the number of nuclear reactors from 24 by the end of 2015 to 26 by 2030.
Following Park Won-soon’s election as Mayor of Seoul in 2011 the SMG launched the “One Less Nuclear Power Plant” program of works in April 2012 to reduce centralized energy demand by 23 TWh (2 million TOE), equivalent to the generation in 2011 of Wolsong Nuclear Power Plant Units 1 and 2 (9 TWh or 0.8 MTOE) plus saving 14 TWh (1.2 MTOE) of oil and liquefied natural gas consumption by the end of 2014. Other key targets included reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 6 million tonnes of CO2e by 2014, increasing Seoul’s electricity self-supply from 3% to 8% by 2014 and 20% by 2020 and generating economic benefits of KRW 1.5 trillion (USD 1.5 billion) from replacing fossil fuel imports and creating 34,000 new green jobs from 2014.
“One Less Nuclear Power Plant” comprised 10 key action plans:
- Make Seoul a city of sunlight where the entire city is a solar PV plant (320 MW).
- Ensure energy self-sufficiency of core facilities by fuel cells (230 MW).
- Improve energy efficiency of buildings (12,000 buildings energy efficiency retrofits).
- Realize a Smart Lighting City by LED (installation of 8 million LED lights).
- Launch ‘2030 City Master Plan’ with a view to energy efficient urban structure.
- Reinforce design standards for new buildings by introducing energy cap/other measures.
- Secure 150,000 members for car sharing scheme.
- Produce job creating effect in green industries (eg, new and renewable energy industry).
- Create citizen lifestyle with energy saving actions.
- Establish and operate Seoul Natural Energy Foundation.
Seoul delivered its “One Less Nuclear Power Plant” primary target six months early by reducing centralized energy demand through a combination of energy efficiency and decentralized energy by close to 24 TWh (2 MTOE) by June 2014.
“One Less Nuclear Power Plant, Phase 2” — Seoul Sustainable Energy Action Plan
In developing Phase 2, the SMG reviewed the energy policies of the world’s leading cities, in particular, New York City “PLaNYC 2030” (securing and expanding decentralized energy sources), the European Union 2030 Framework for Climate and Energy Policies (40% reduction in GHG emissions and increasing renewable energy to 27% by 2030), France’s government-sponsored, nationwide debate regarding a possible shift of the country’s electricity system from nuclear to renewable energy and the City of Sydney “Sustainable Sydney 2030” and “Renewable Energy Master Plan (70% reduction in GHG emissions and 100% of the city’s local government area electricity, heating and cooling demands being met by local renewable energy sources by 2030).
Phase 2 will build on and develop the original Phase 1 program of works to reduce centralized energy demand through a combination of energy efficiency and decentralized energy by 46.5 TWh (4 MTOE), to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 10 million tonnes of CO2e (20.5% reduction from 2011 emission levels) and to increase Seoul’s electricity self-supply to 20% by 2020.
The vision and strategies for Phase 2 will be based on:
Vision “Seoul, an Energy Self Reliant City” where citizens produce energy and consume it efficiently.
Values Energy self reliance + Energy sharing + Energy participation.
- A city pursuing decentralized energy production.
- Social structure based on efficient, low energy consumption.
- Creation of green jobs through innovations.
- Promotion of energy sharing, warm communities.
This will be delivered by 88 projects under 23 tasks in 4 categories compared to the 71 projects in 3 categories in Phase 1.
Key implementation systems will include the establishment of energy collaboration through “Seoul Energy Governance” and the establishment of a “Seoul Energy Corporation” to improve performance.
Seoul Sustainable Energy Action Plan
Energy self-reliance increased from 4.3% in 2013 to 7% in 2015 by a combination of a 28 TWh reduction in energy demand and a 3 TWh increase in decentralized energy generation. This is part of the Action Plan target to increase energy self-reliance to 20% in 2020 by a combination of a 9.6 TWh reduction in energy demand and an 8.2 TWh increase in decentralized energy generation. The Action Plan also aims at delivering a 20.5% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions of 10 million tonnes a year by 2020.
The decentralized energy program of works will deliver 40,000 small-scale solar PV systems, 61 MW of non-utility cogeneration, 300 MW of large-scale solar PV and fuel cells and 1.3 TWh of heating and cooling from waste to energy plants. The mandatory renewable power generation for new buildings planning rules will also increase from 12% to 20% and unused or discarded energy will be recovered such as the inherent heat in ground water under subway stations to be used to heat and cool nearby buildings and waste heat from commercial cogeneration to heat nearby residential apartment buildings.
Other core projects in the Action Plan comprise:
• Mandatory disclosure of energy consumption by all buildings
• Replacement of 100% street and security lighting with LED lamps
• Introduction of Driving Mileage Program (1.18 million membership by 2018)
• Establishment of Civic Energy Governance
• Energy Welfare program for the energy poor residents
• Recycling at village levels and creation of jobs for the elderly
• New energy industries created and promoted by SMG
• 26 Energy Hub Centres to create new service jobs
Allan Jones MBE
President of IEAC
26 November 2015
IEAC-Member Presentations at the Seoul International Energy Conference 2015 (SIEC2015)
Seoul City Hall, 11 November 2015
— Walt Patterson
“Rethinking Energy—Implementing the Global Future Locally Today”
— John BYRNE & Sun-jin YUN
“Seoul Solar City: Policy, Finance & Solar Lifeline Options to Advance Solar City Implementation”
— Alan Meier
“Re-defining Transportation in the 21st Century City”
— Lars J. Nilsson
“Sustainable Mobility and Urban Planning”
— Teruyuki OHNO & YU Cong
“Low Carbon Energy Strategies for Urban Environments—Case Studies from China and Japan”
— Mycle Schneider
“Exploiting the Daylighting Potential in New-build and Retrofit Buildings”
— Allan Jones
“SIEAC Review of ‘One Less Nuclear Power Plant, Phase 2’ Plan”